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Neutrino Web Preset

@neutrinojs/web is a Neutrino preset that supports building generic applications for the web.

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Features

  • Zero upfront configuration necessary to start developing and building a web app
  • Modern Babel compilation supporting ES modules, last 2 major browser versions, async functions, and dynamic imports
  • webpack loaders for importing HTML, CSS, images, icons, and fonts
  • webpack Dev Server during development
  • Automatic creation of HTML pages, no templating necessary
  • Automatic stylesheet extraction; importing stylesheets into modules creates bundled external stylesheets
  • Pre-configured to support CSS Modules via *.module.css file extensions
  • Hot Module Replacement support including CSS
  • Tree-shaking to create smaller bundles
  • Production-optimized bundles with minification, easy chunking, and scope-hoisted modules for faster execution
  • Easily extensible to customize your project as needed

Requirements

  • Node.js ^8.10 or 10+
  • Yarn v1.2.1+, or npm v5.4+
  • Neutrino 9
  • webpack 4
  • webpack-cli 3
  • webpack-dev-server 3

Quickstart

The fastest way to get started is by using the create-project scaffolding tool. Don’t want to use the CLI helper? No worries, we have you covered with the manual installation.

create-project

Run the following command to start the process. Substitute <directory-name> with the directory name you wish to create for this project.

Yarn

❯ yarn create @neutrinojs/project <directory-name>

Note: The create command is a shorthand that helps you do two things at once. See the Yarn create docs for more details.

npm/npx

npx comes pre-installed with npm. If you’re running an older version of npm, then npm install -g npm to update to the latest version.

❯ npx @neutrinojs/create-project <directory-name>

The CLI helper will prompt for the project to scaffold, and will offer to set up a test runner as well as linting to your project. Refer to the Create new project section for details on all available options.

Manual Installation

@neutrinojs/web can be installed via the Yarn or npm clients. Inside your project, make sure that the dependencies below are installed as development dependencies.

Yarn

❯ yarn add --dev neutrino @neutrinojs/web webpack webpack-cli webpack-dev-server

npm

❯ npm install --save-dev neutrino @neutrinojs/web webpack webpack-cli webpack-dev-server

After that, add a new directory named src in the root of the project, with a single JS file named index.js in it.

❯ mkdir src && touch src/index.js

This Web preset exposes an element in the page with an ID of root to which you can mount your application. Edit your src/index.js file with the following:

const app = document.createElement('main');
const text = document.createTextNode('Hello world!');

app.appendChild(text);
document.getElementById('root').appendChild(app);

Now edit your project's package.json to add commands for starting and building the application:

{
  "scripts": {
    "start": "webpack-dev-server --mode development --open",
    "build": "webpack --mode production"
  }
}

Then create a .neutrinorc.js file alongside package.json, which contains your Neutrino configuration:

const web = require('@neutrinojs/web');

module.exports = {
  use: [web()],
};

And create a webpack.config.js file, that uses the Neutrino API to access the generated webpack config:

const neutrino = require('neutrino');

module.exports = neutrino().webpack();

Start the app, then open a browser to the address in the console:

Yarn

❯ yarn start

npm

❯ npm start

Project Layout

@neutrinojs/web follows the standard project layout specified by Neutrino. This means that by default all project source code should live in a directory named src in the root of the project. This includes JavaScript files, CSS stylesheets, images, and any other assets that would be available to your compiled project.

Building

@neutrinojs/web builds static assets to the build directory by default when running yarn build. You can either serve or deploy the contents of this build directory as a static site.

Static assets

If you wish to copy files to the build directory that are not imported from application code, use the @neutrinojs/copy preset alongside this one.

Deployment Path

By default @neutrinojs/web assumes that your application will be deployed at the root of a domain (eg: https://www.my-app.com/), and so sets webpack's output.publicPath to '/', which means assets will be loaded from the site root using absolute paths.

If your app is instead deployed within a subdirectory, you will need to adjust the publicPath preset option. For example if your app is hosted at https://my-username.github.io/my-app/, you will need to set publicPath to '/my-app/'.

Alternatively, if you would like your app to be able to be served from any location, and are not using the HTML5 pushState history API or client-side routing, then you can set publicPath to the empty string, which will cause relative asset paths to be used instead.

Preset options

You can provide custom options and have them merged with this preset's default options to easily affect how this preset builds. You can modify Web preset settings from .neutrinorc.js by overriding with an options object. The following shows how you can pass an options object to the Web preset and override its options:

const web = require('@neutrinojs/web');

module.exports = {
  use: [
    web({
      // Enables and configures `EnvironmentPlugin`. See below for example usage.
      env: false,

      // Enables Hot Module Replacement. Set to false to disable
      hot: true,

      // Controls webpack's `output.publicPath` setting.
      // See the "Deployment Path" section above for more info.
      publicPath: '/',

      // Change options for @neutrinojs/style-loader
      style: {},

      // Change options for @neutrinojs/font-loader
      font: {},

      // Change options for @neutrinojs/image-loader
      image: {},

      minify: {
        // Javascript minification occurs only in production by default.
        // To change uglify-es options or switch to another minifier, see below.
        source: process.env.NODE_ENV === 'production',
      },

      // Change options related to generating the HTML document
      // See @neutrinojs/html-template for the defaults
      // used by the Web preset
      html: {},

      // Control which source map types are enabled for each NODE_ENV
      devtool: {
        development: 'cheap-module-eval-source-map',
        production: undefined,
        test: 'source-map',
      },

      // Change options related to starting a webpack-dev-server
      devServer: {
        // Disabling options.hot will also disable devServer.hot
        hot: options.hot,
        // Proxy requests that don't match a known file to the specified backend.
        proxy: 'https://localhost:8000/api/',
      },

      // Target specific browsers with @babel/preset-env
      targets: {
        browsers: ['last 1 Chrome versions', 'last 1 Firefox versions'],
      },

      // Add additional Babel plugins, presets, or env options
      babel: {
        // Override options for @babel/preset-env:
        presets: [
          [
            '@babel/preset-env',
            {
              useBuiltIns: 'entry',
            },
          ],
        ],
      },
    }),
  ],
};

Example: Disable Hot Module Replacement and change the page title:

const web = require('@neutrinojs/web');

module.exports = {
  use: [
    web({
      /* preset options */

      // Example: disable Hot Module Replacement
      hot: false,

      // Example: disable image-loader, style-loader, font-loader
      image: false,
      style: false,
      font: false,

      // Disable javascript minification entirely
      minify: {
        source: false,
      },

      // Disable cleaning the output build directory
      clean: false,

      // Example: change the page title
      html: {
        title: 'Epic Web App',
      },

      // Example: Proxy webpack-dev-server requests to http://localhost:3000
      devServer: {
        proxy: 'http://localhost:3000',
      },
    }),
  ],
};

Environment variables

To use environment variables at compile time, use the env setting to enable and configure EnvironmentPlugin (env accepts the same options as the plugin). There is no need to specify NODE_ENV, since webpack defines it automatically. The environment variables can then be used via process.env.<NAME>.

For example:

web({
  env: [
    // webpack will output a warning if these are not defined in the environment.
    'VAR_ONE',
    'VAR_TWO',
  ],
});

Or to set default values, use the object form:

web({
  env: {
    VAR_ONE: 'foo',
    VAR_TWO: 'bar',
  },
});

Dev Server Proxy

If you are handling requests with a server, you may want to set up a proxy for development. See webpack's devServer.proxy for all available options.

For example:

web({
  devServer: {
    proxy: {
      '**': {
        target: 'http://localhost:3000',
        changeOrigin: true,
      },
    },
  },
});

Source Maps

By default, the 'cheap-module-eval-source-map' source map is enabled when NODE_ENV is 'development', 'source-map' for 'test' and no source maps for 'production'.

To customise this, use the preset's devtool option, for example:

web({
  devtool: {
    // Enable source-maps in production
    production: 'source-map',
  },
});

For the differences between each source map type, see the webpack devtool docs.

Targets

web({
  // Use targets from a .browserslistrc file.
  targets: false,
});

Setting to false will override Neutrino's default targets and allow @babel/preset-env to read targets from a .browserslistrc file.

When using a .browserslistrc file, be aware that file changes may not invalidate cache as expected: https://github.com/babel/babel-loader/issues/690

See @babel/preset-env for all other available settings.

Hot Module Replacement

While @neutrinojs/web supports Hot Module Replacement your app, it does require some application-specific changes in order to operate. Your application should define split points for which to accept modules to reload using module.hot:

For example:

import app from './app';

document.getElementById('root').appendChild(app('Hello world!'));

if (module.hot) {
  module.hot.accept('./app');
}

Or for all paths:

import app from './app';

document.getElementById('root').appendChild(app('Hello world!'));

if (module.hot) {
  module.hot.accept();
}

Using dynamic imports with import() will automatically create split points and hot replace those modules upon modification during development.

Customizing

To override the build configuration, start with the documentation on customization. @neutrinojs/web creates some conventions to make overriding the configuration easier once you are ready to make changes.

By default Neutrino, and therefore this preset, creates a single main index entry point to your application, and this maps to the index.* file in the src directory. The extension is resolved by webpack. This value is provided by neutrino.options.mains at neutrino.options.mains.index.

If you wish to output multiple pages, you can configure them like so:

const web = require('@neutrinojs/web');

module.exports = {
  options: {
    mains: {
      index: {
        // outputs index.html from src/index.*
        entry: 'index',
        // Additional options are passed to html-webpack-plugin, and override
        // any defaults set via the preset's `html` option.
        title: 'Site Homepage',
      },
      admin: {
        // outputs admin.html from src/admin.*
        entry: 'admin',
        title: 'Admin Dashboard',
      },
      account: {
        // outputs account.html from src/user.* using a custom HTML template.
        entry: 'user',
        inject: true,
        template: 'my-custom-template.html',
      },
    },
  },
  use: [web()],
};

If the need arises, you can compile node_modules by referring to the relevant compile-loader documentation.

Rules

The following is a list of rules and their identifiers which can be overridden:

Name Description NODE_ENV
compile Compiles JS files from the src directory using Babel. Contains a single loader named babel. From @neutrinojs/compile-loader. all
html Allows importing HTML files from modules. Contains a single loader named html. From @neutrinojs/html-loader. all
style A parent rule containing oneOf rules for importing stylesheets. From @neutrinojs/style-loader. all
image Allows importing ICO, JPEG, PNG, GIF, SVG and WEBP files from modules. Contains a single loader named url. From @neutrinojs/image-loader. all
font Allows importing EOT, TTF, WOFF and WOFF2 font files from modules. Contains a single loader named file. From @neutrinojs/font-loader. all

Plugins

The following is a list of plugins and their identifiers which can be overridden:

Note: Some plugins are only available in certain environments. To override them, they should be modified conditionally.

Name Description NODE_ENV
env Inject environment variables into source code at process.env, using EnvironmentPlugin. all
extract Extracts CSS from JS bundle into a separate stylesheet file. From @neutrinojs/style-loader. 'production'
html-{MAIN_NAME} Automatically generates HTML files for configured entry points. {MAIN_NAME} corresponds to the entry point of each page. By default, there is only a single index main, so this would generate a plugin named html-index. From @neutrinojs/html-template all
hot Enables Hot Module Replacement. 'development'
clean Clean or remove the build directory prior to building. From @neutrinojs/clean. 'production'

Override configuration

By following the customization guide and knowing the rule, loader, and plugin IDs above, you can override and augment the build by by providing a function to your .neutrinorc.js use array. You can also make these changes from the Neutrino API in custom middleware.

Vendoring

External dependencies are automatically split into separate chunks from the application code, by the new webpack SplitChunksPlugin.

Example: The splitChunks settings can be adjusted like so:

const web = require('@neutrinojs/web');

module.exports = {
  use: [
    web(),
    neutrino => {
      neutrino.config.optimization.merge({
        splitChunks: {
          // Decrease the minimum size before extra chunks are created, to 10KB
          minSize: 10000,
        },
      });
    },
  ],
};

Source minification

By default script sources are minified in production only, using webpack's default of terser-webpack-plugin. To customise the options passed to TerserPlugin or even use a different minifier, override optimization.minimizer.

Example: Adjust the terser minification settings:

const web = require('@neutrinojs/web');

module.exports = {
  use: [
    web(),
    neutrino => {
      // Whilst the minimizer is only used when the separate `minimize` option is true
      // (ie in production), the conditional avoids the expensive require() in development.
      if (process.env.NODE_ENV === 'production') {
        neutrino.config.optimization
          .minimizer('terser')
          .use(require.resolve('terser-webpack-plugin'), [
            {
              // Default options used by webpack:
              // https://github.com/webpack/webpack/blob/v4.26.0/lib/WebpackOptionsDefaulter.js#L308-L315
              cache: true,
              parallel: true,
              sourceMap:
                neutrino.config.devtool &&
                /source-?map/.test(neutrino.config.devtool),
              // Pass custom options here.
              // https://github.com/webpack-contrib/terser-webpack-plugin#terseroptions
              // https://github.com/terser-js/terser#minify-options
              terserOptions: {
                // eg disable mangling of names
                mangle: false,
              },
            },
          ]);
      }
    },
  ],
};

Contributing

This preset is part of the neutrino repository, a monorepo containing all resources for developing Neutrino and its core presets and middleware. Follow the contributing guide for details.